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Poor access to improved water and sanitation in Nigeria remains a major contributing factor to high morbidity and mortality rates among children as well as adults in Nigeria. The use of contaminated drinking water and poor sanitary conditions result in increased vulnerability to water-borne diseases, including diarrhoea which leads to deaths of more than 70,000 children under five annually.
According to UNICEF Seventy-three per cent (73%) of the diarrhoea and enteric diseases Nigerians suffer is associated with poor access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene and is this worse among the rural communities. Below 60% of the population use improved drinking water sources and sanitation facilities. Also, 23.5 per cent of the population defecates in the open.
The Responsibility of water supply in Nigeria is shared between three levels of government, Federal, State and Local. The federal government is in charge of water resources management; state governments have the primary responsibility for urban water supply; and local governments together with communities are responsible for rural water supply. The responsibility for sanitation is not clearly defined. The Federal Ministry of water resources is saddled with the responsibility of providing sustainable access to safe and sufficient water to meet the cultural and socio-economic needs of Nigerians in a way that will enhance public health, food security, and poverty reduction, while maintaining the integrity of fresh water ecosystem of the nation.
2019 World Water Week held at Stockholm, Sweden.
Millions of lives could be at risk if we don’t take the water crisis and global warming more seriously. World Water Week closed on Friday 30 August 2019 amid calls for governments, institutions and companies to start applying the water-based solutions that already exist and include everyone in the process. The world’s leading annual water event, World Water Week, ended with warnings of looming dangers as well as rays of hope. The Nigerian Minister of water resources with his team were among the 4,000 participants from 138 countries. One of the solutions proposed for effective rural water supply is the construction of boreholes in the local communities. The major source of water in many rural communities in Nigeria is water sourced from streams. This water is not safe and is mostly contaminated. Government has not done sufficient work in the provision of water to rural communities. Water is supposed to be one of the Government’s basic provisions for its citizens. The state water agencies and boards are not doing sufficient work in providing water to both the rural and urban areas. Individuals and businessmen has turned water supply into a business by drilling boreholes and selling water in jerry cans.
Nigeria’s capital Abuja receives part of its drinking water from the lower Usuma dam and the Gaura Dam. However, the FCT water board does not have full coverage of the FCT metropolis. Residents in the suburbs depend on boreholes and buying of water from water vendors popularly called “mai-ruwa”. NGOs and companies are recently making strides in drilling boreholes and hand pump water projects in rural communities. Business men and individuals have also ventured into drilling boreholes to sell water for rural residents who do not have access to streams and wells.
Federal Water Supply Projects in Nigeria 2019
A. Phase two of Zaria Water Supply and Expansion Project in Kaduna State- This project has been commissioned. President Muhammadu Buhari performed the commissioning ceremony and said that the government had spent US $32.7m towards the project. The Zaria Water project aims at contributing towards government’s efforts to increase access to water supply and sanitation from the current level of 54% for water and 32% for sanitation to 100% access by 2020. The Zaria water treatment plant has the capacity of 150 million liters of water per day. It is expected to once and for all solve the water shortage problem in Zaria metropolis and its environs.
B. Third National Urban Water Sector Reform Project- The World Bank is sponsoring the development of the Third National Urban Water Sector Reform Project for Nigeria. The objectives are to: (a) increase access to improved water supply service in selected states of Nigeria and improve the financial viability of existing water utilities in those states, and (b) increase the investment planning capacity of participating states. The project total sum is US$273 million and US$250 commitment amount.
Borehole drilling business in Nigeria
Borehole drilling business requires quite a lot of capital to set up. Nigerian built rig goes for about 10-15 million naira. A good fairly used compressor should be around 1.6 million naira. Now with other cost of drilling rods (50-70 thousand naira each), drilling bits (70-150 thousand naira), and cost of running the business, you should be prepared and study the industry before venturing into it.
The Borehole Drillers Association of Nigeria BODAN is set to bring all drilling companies under one umbrella to check quacks by sieving away the non-professionals in the industry. The industry is full of quacks; this is the reason for many abandoned and failed boreholes across the country. The association is registering professional geologists, borehole drilling companies to give them identity in order to check quacks.
In this light, we reached out to businesses in the field to get a deep overview and insight on the borehole drilling sector. Our featured business is CEDAJ NIGERIA ENTREPRISE.
CEDAJ NIGERIA ENTREPRISE.
Cedaj Nigeria Entreprise is located at 1, Lanihun Street, Ejigbo Lagos, and 64, Ladijo Street, iseri-osun Lagos.
Cedaj company provide several services which includes,
*borehole drilling both individual and industrial.
*construction, supply and installation of tanks of all types.
*Construction of steel stands/towers.
*They also offer water treatment services.
Contact: Mr. John, 08077706426.
Please tell us about the processes of drilling borehole?
A. Borehole siting
Determining where the water is and how to reach it, is the first step when it comes to drilling boreholes. It is crucial to employ professionals for this task to avoid drilling into natural hazards or pipelines and cables
B. Drilling and Construction
The next step is to commence with the drilling. Special machinery is used to drill deep into the earth’s surface. While the depth of an average borehole ranges between 60m – 80m, it can vary greatly from one borehole to another. Construction comes next in the form of steel casing to reinforce the borehole.
C. Yield testing
Yield testing is done to determine the balance between the greatest amount of water that can be yielded from the borehole and the amount of water that flows back from the neighboring groundwater source. In order to do yield testing, an aquifer test is carried out. A test pump is installed and water is pumped for a fixed time and set of variables to access the water level in the borehole.
D. Pump and filter installation
Once the yield testing is done, you’ll be advised on the pump you need. The type of pump system will depend largely on your intended use of your new borehole. You can use manual pumping or electric pump system. If your domestic borehole will be used for drinking water, you’ll need a filtration system to get rid of contaminants from your water supply.
E. Steel tower/Storage tanks construction and installation
To ensure regular supply water, storage tanks are constructed and raised on steel towers. The towers serve to increase the water pressure going through the pipes. The tanks can be built from different materials, fibre tanks, plastics, steel etc.
Methods of Drilling Borehole Water systems
*The manual drilling method
This is the manual type which takes time and needs the assistance of more than 7 people to do the job.
Please Note that the disadvantage of using the manual drilling system is that you stand to pay triple the amount of your original budget if the manual borehole drilling team hit underground stone that the drilling machine cannot crack. Using the Manual drilling contractors might take up to 4 – 7 days to complete
*The heavy duty borehole drilling system
This method uses sophisticated machines and tractors for Drilling Borehole. They require not more than 2 -3 people to do the business. The Heavy Duty Borehole drilling is faster and can take just about 1 -2 days to finish or find water underground.
What is the cost of installing a borehole?
The Association of Water Well Drillers and Rig-owners Practitioners has said the prices of borehole drilling will soon rise due to the high naira-dollar exchange rate as foreign exchange is being used to procure equipment and materials. Water boreholes in Lagos Nigeria are usually within the 100 feet to 200 feet range depending on how close your neighborhood is to water. The Heavy duty borehole drilling cost about = N120,000 to N650,000. Depending on the state you are and cost of work in that state also. While the manual drilling method cost about N200,000 – N300,000.
However, there are other factors that determine the cost of drilling a borehole. Depending on which part of the state in Nigeria you want to dig the borehole.
1. Siting the borehole location – It’s basically locating the best spot to drill a borehole that will have the best performance and water quality at the lowest cost possible.
2. Mobilisation and Demobilisation – Machinery, equipment and materials need to get to the site to be set up. This is the cost for moving the borehole drilling machinery and equipment to and from the site.
3. Borehole drilling cost per meter – Like explained above, every borehole will have a different depth depending on all the factors. The actual borehole drilling costs are usually calculated at a per meter cost. So the depth and type of ground will play the biggest role in getting a cost per meter.
4. Construction Material Costs – After the borehole has been drilled, the casing and completion tasks needs to be implemented. This cost can include materials like a solid casing, screen, gravel pack, sanitary seal and a well head.
5. Performance and Quality testing – The next step is well development, pump test and borehole water quality. That will determine the performance of the borehole (how much water is available) and the quality of the water.
6. Platform and Pump – Once everything has been finished, the borehole needs a platform and pumps installed for it to be used. It depends on what the use is for the borehole to decide whether it will be hand pump or electrical pump.
Also make sure to; investigate the situation with other boreholes in your area. If you most insist on using the Manual Cost of materials in that state, Cost of workmanship in that state, Cost of Human/living in that state, Economic standard of the state, The type of drilling either manual or machine drill.
In conclusion, Heavy Duty Borehole drilling is great; the water is cleaner and safer.
These are the basic factors, processes and components that need to be included when calculating the costs of drilling borehole. Now you have an idea what exactly it takes to figure out the cost of a borehole and the necessary things to consider before drilling a borehole or starting a borehole drilling business in Nigeria.
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